DUE TO COVID-19 AND HIGH DEMAND, WE ARE CURRENTLY ONLY TAKING ORDERS OVER THE TELEPHONE. CALL US TODAY FREE ON: 0800-107-5135

Glossary of Coin Terms

The information in our coin descriptions and articles contains a number of terms which are exclusive to numismatics. The table below contains a list of frequently encountered terms, their synonyms and abbreviations.   

Term

Definition

About fine

This grade translates to Very Good. The grades VG-8 and VG-10 on the Sheldon scale.

About good

The grade AG-3 on the Sheldon grading scale.

About uncirculated

The grades AU-50, AU-53, AU-55, and AU-58 on the Sheldon grading scale. Alternative term for Almost Uncirculated.

Abrasions

When something rough rubs against the surface of a coin and moves metal.

Accumulation

A "group" of coins which have come to be, the opposite of a collection.

Adjectival grading

The grades Poor, Good, Fine, Very Fine, Extremely Fine and Uncirculated. These terms predate the numeric or Sheldon scale.

Adjustment marks

Older coins could have excess metal shaven away to bring the weight of the coin in line with its face value.

AG

About Good. The grade AG-3 on the Sheldon scale.

Album friction

Slight rubbing on the high points of a coin caused by sliding coins into an album. Proof coins are most affected.

Album slide marks

A more severe form of album friction, these "lines" usually run parallel over much of a coins design.

Alloy

A mixture of two or more metals.

Almost uncirculated

The grades AU-50, AU-53, AU-55, and AU-58 on the Sheldon grading scale. Alternative term for About Uncirculated.

Alteration

A modification made to a coin such as a mint mark or date. Usually to deceive and imitate a rarer type. A type of "doctoring".

Altered surfaces

Cleaning or something applied to a coin which alters the natural appearance of a coin's surfaces.

Ancients

Coins minted up to 476 CE, the most commonly encountered are Roman and Greek.

Annealing

The heating of a coin or die before striking.

Anvil die

The lower die, usually the reverse side of the coin.

Artificial toning

Colouring added to a coin which is unnatural.

Assay

Testing of a metal to determine its purity.

AU

About/Almost Uncirculated. The grades AU-50, AU-53, AU-55, and AU-58 on the Sheldon grading scale.

Auction

Items offered for sale where buyers bid against other potential buyers.

Authentication

The process of determining an item's authenticity. Bath Spa Capital's coins are authenticated and graded by NGC, the world's largest authentication company.

Bag Mark

Abrasive marks on coins, the name is derived from the mint bags in which coins were transported. Larger coins are more susceptible to these marks. A synonym of contact marks.

Blank

A coin before it is struck with any of its design elements. A synonym of planchet.

BN

An abbreviation for the designation red on copper and bronze coins.

Branch mint

A mint outside of the central mint which strikes coins.

Brass

An alloy of copper and zinc.

Brilliant

An adjectival term for a coin which displays its mint bloom with no discolouration or toning.

Brilliant uncirculated

A term for a coin which has not been circulated and exhibits bright mint bloom.

Broadstrike

This occurs when the minting press loses its retaining collar resulting in a coin which flows over the edges of the dies when struck resulting in an irregular edge.

Brockage

This occurs when a coin is not ejected from the minting press and adheres to a die. This then strikes the next coin(s) imparting an incuse design of the opposite side.

Bronze

An alloy of copper and tin.

Brown

A designation that follows a grade on copper coins to denote its colour.

BU

An acronym for brilliant uncirculated.

Bullion

The value of a coin's metal content.

Burnished

When a coin is polished, this can be by the mint in the case of proof coins, outside of the mint burnishing is detrimental to the value and collectability of a coin.

Business strike

A term for a coin which is intended for circulation.

Bust

The head and shoulders of a figure, usually a monarch or head of state.

Buyer's premium

A percentage on top of the final sale price of a coin at auction.

Cabinet friction

Friction seen on the surface of a coin from storage in a wooden cabinet. Such cabinets had felt pads which with use produced light hairlines.

CAM

A designation used by PCGS, this refers to the cameo effect of a proof or proof-like coin.

Cameo

A term referring to the juxtaposition of reflective fields and frosty devices on a proof or proof-like coin.

Capsule

A plastic storage solution to prevent the mishandling of coins.

Carbon spot

A dark discolouration on the surface of a coin. This can be caused by an imperfection prior to striking, or part of a coin reacting to elements in the atmosphere. Carbon spots are often difficult, if not impossible, to remove without leaving pitting in a coin's surface. A synonym of copper spot.

Cartwheel

A synonym of mint bloom or mint lustre, this refers to the circular pattern of light seen when a coin is tilted under light.

Cast coins

A coin produced in a mold. Some ancient coins were produced in this way, modern cast coins are usually forgeries or copies.

Cast counterfeit

A copy of a struck coin created by a mold of an original coin.

Census

A list of known coins.

Chasing

A method used by forgers to create a mintmark on a coin. Chasing involves heating the surfaces and moving the metal to form a mintmark.

Choice

An adjective which the A.N.A. applies to coins of MS-65 or Proof-65 grade. Many dealers apply the term to the MS/Proof-63 coins, and call MS/Proof-65 coins "Gem".

Choice unc

Abbreviation of Choice Uncirculated, a coin in the grades MS-63 or MS-64.

Choice uncirculated

An uncirculated coin in the grades MS-63 or MS-64.

Circulated

A coin which shows evidence of use in circulation.

Circulation strike

A coin which is intended for circulation.

Clash marks

Unintended details on a coin which are caused by clashed dies.

Clashed dies

When the obverse and reverse die clash without a planchet between. This causes unintended additional details on a die which can appear on a coin.

Cleaned

When an abrasive or chemical is used to "improve" the appearance of a coin. Cleaning is detrimental to a coin's eye appeal and value.

Clipped

Term for an irregularly cut planchet. A clip can be straight or curved, depending upon where it was cut.

Clogged die

When a foreign object, such as oil, fills the part of the coin die, this detail is then lost in striking.

Closed collar

This "third die" that gives a coin it's reeded or plain edge, it also prevents the coin becoming too large and flat in striking.

Coin

A piece of currency of a specific weight, metal and fineness which is issued by a governing body and is intended to circulate at its set value.

Coin friction

Displaced metal from coins rubbing together such as in bags or rolls.

Coinage

The issue of money by a specific country.

Commemorative

Coins issued in recognition or remembrance of a person or event.

Commercial strike

A term for a coin which is intended for circulation.

Common

A coin which is readily available.

Common date

A particular date which is more readily available than others.

Complete set

A term for a collection of a series or type of coin which contains all known varieties.

Condition

The grade or state of preservation of a coin.

Conservation

The safe removal of toning or elements to improve a coin's eye appeal. A conserved coin will show no evidence of conservation as opposed to cleaning or polishing.

Conserved

A coin with detracting elements removed without being of detriment to the coin.

Contact mark

Abrasive marks on coins, the name is derived from the mint bags in which coins were transported. Larger coins are more susceptible to these marks. A synonym of bag mark.

Contemporary counterfeit

A forgery which was produced around the same time a coin was issued. This term usually applies to ancient, hammered and early milled coins.

Copper

A red to brown metal in which lower value coins are struck, such as two pence and pennies.

Copper spot

A dark discolouration on the surface of a coin. This can be caused by an imperfection prior to striking, or part of a coin reacting to elements in the atmosphere. Carbon spots are often difficult, if not impossible, to remove without leaving pitting in a coin's surface. A synonym of carbon spot.

Copper-nickel

An alloy of copper and nickel, this hard alloy is used for British 5 pence, 10 pence, 20 pence and 50 pence coins.

Copy

A reproduction, this is whether it is intended to deceive or not.

Corrosion

Corrosion is caused by chemical reactions on the coin's surface. This can occur through improper storage or by application of cleaning chemicals.

Counterfeit

A copy of a copy which is usually to deceive.

Counting machine mark

A dense patch of lines caused by the rubber wheel of a counting machine. Caused when the wheel spacing was insufficient for the selected coin.

Cud

A cud is a mint error caused by a die break. This can be a crack or retained cud, or a full cud where a piece of the die has fallen away.

Cupro-nickel

An alloy of copper and nickel, this hard alloy is used for British 5 pence, 10 pence, 20 pence and 50 pence coins.

Date

The date in which a coin was issued, this is usually displayed on a coin.

DCAM

An abbreviation used by PCGS, this refers to the deep cameo effect of a proof coin.

Deep cameo

A term referring to the juxtaposition of reflective fields and frosty devices on proof coins.

Deep mirror proof-like

A coin with reflective, mirror-like fields

Deep proof-like

A coin with reflective, mirror-like fields

Denomination

The face value of a specific coin.

Denticles

A hollow type of beading/toothing that appears in the inner rim of some coins such as the sovereign denominations.

Designation

An addition to the grade of a coin to denote characteristics of the coin not covered by the coin's grade. A designation may refer to the coin's color, strike, or overall appearance. All copper coins have a color designation, but other coins may not have a designation at all, even if one is available for their series. Designations do not affect the coin's grade, but almost always affect the coin's value. Some common examples of designations are red, proof-like and cameo. 

Designer

The person responsible for a coin’s design.

Device

Any specific design element. Often refers to the principal design element.

Die

An iron or steel "stamp" which is engraved with a coin's design elements.

Die alignment

The orientation of the obverse in relation to the reverse.

Die break

A die which has broken by overuse or misuse. Evidence of this can be seen on coins, a break will appear as a raised line or an area in relief with no detail.

Die cap

This occurs when a coin gets stuck on the die and receives multiple strikes as the press operates. A die cap ends up looking like a bottle cap, with a rounded shape.

Die cracks

Die cracks usually occur from the overuse of a die, these are evidenced on coins as raised lines.

Die rust

Steel or iron dies can exhibit rust, coins struck from these dies usually have an impression of the rust which appears as pitting.

Die state

A readily identified point in the life of a coinage die. Dies go through a lifecycle - clashing, being polished, cracking, breaking, etc. These are called die states. Some die varieties have gone through barely distinguishable die states, while others display multiple distinctive ones.

Die striations

Polished dies have incuse lines, coins struck from these dies will exhibit die striations. These appear as hairlines but differ in that they are in relief.

Die trial

Testing of a die or new coinage, this is usually in various metals.

Die wear

Wear and tear on coin dies will result in a loss of detail. Coins struck with worn dies will appear circulated but may exhibit full mint bloom and no discolouration.

Dies

The iron or steel "stamps" which are engraved with a coin’s design elements.

Dipped

A coin which has been submerged in a non abrasive cleaning solution such as jewel luster.

DMPL

An abbreviation of deep mirror proof-like

Doctored

A coin which someone has attempted to improve. Doctoring is considered detrimental to a coin’s value and collectability. 

Double-struck

When a coin is not ejected from a minting press, double struck coins often exhibit a duplication of some or all design elements.

Dull

Lack of lustre.

Early Release

A special label offered by NGC for newly minted coins which are graded before a set cut-off date.

Early Strike

A special label offered by grading companies for newly minted coins which are graded before a set cut-off date.

ED

Abbreviation of environmental damage.

Edge

The third face of a coin, this is often reeded or decorated.

EF

The grade Extremely Fine. The grades XF-40 and XF-45 on the Sheldon grading scale.

Electrotype

A duplicate coin created by the electrolytic method, where metal is deposited into a mold made from the original. The obverse and reverse metal shells are then filled with metal and fused together. The edges are then sometimes filed smooth to obscure the seam.

Elements

The parts which make up a coins design.

Encapsulated

A coin which is inside a capsule, this usually refers to a coin inside of a third-party grading capsule or "slab".

Encapsulated coin

A coin which is inside a capsule, this usually refers to coins inside of third-party grading "slabs".

Engraver

A person responsible for engraving a coin's design on to the dies.

Environmental damage

Corrosion effects seen on a coin that has been exposed to the elements. The damage may range from minor dulling to severe pitting.

Eroded die

A die that has lost detail due to extended use. Dies were often used until they wore out, or were excessively cracked or broken. Coins struck from worn dies often appear to be weakly struck, however, they are not caused by low striking pressure.

Error

A numismatic item that unintentionally varies from the norm. Over-dates and over-mintmarks are not considered errors since they were done intentionally. Other die-cutting "mistakes" are considered errors. Double dies, planchet clips, and off-metal strikings are also considered errors.

Error

A mistake in the design of a coin, and also the coin on which the mistake occurs.

Essai

Term for trial or pattern strikings. The anglicised version is essay and literally means a test or trial.

Exergue

A small space or inscription below the principal emblem on a coin, usually on the reverse side.

Extremely Fine

The grades XF-40 and XF-45 on the Sheldon grading scale.

Eye appeal

How pleasing a coin looks. This is extremely subjective.

F

The grade Fine. The grades is F-12 and F-15 on the Sheldon grading scale.

Fair

The grade FR-2 on the Sheldon grading scale.

Fake

A coin which is not real.

Fantasy

A term applied to coins struck at the whim of Mint officials.

FDC

Fleur-De-Coin, a coin preserved in its mint condition. Usually used to describe proof coins.

Fiat currency

A currency which is not backed up by a commodity such as gold.

Field

The background of a coin, typically flat and recessed from the main design elements.

Film

A coating seen on some coins, this can be from mishandling, cleaning or naturally occurring

Fine

The grades F-12 and F-15 on the Sheldon grading scale.

First Strike

A special label offered by grading companies for newly minted coins which are submitted before a set cut-off date.

Flawed proof

A proof coin which has been mishandled or damaged.

Fleur-de-coin 

a coin preserved in its mint condition. Usually used to describe proof coins. Abbreviated as FDC. 

Flip

A clear plastic, foldable holder with two sides.

Flip rub

Discolouration, often only slight, on the highest points of a coin caused by contact with a flip.

Flow lines

Lines, sometimes visible, resulting from the metal flowing outward from the centre of a planchet as it is struck. Cartwheel lustre is the result of light reflecting from flow lines.

Fr

The grade Fair. The grade FR-2 on the Sheldon grading scale.

Frosting

A term referring to the devices on proof coins which are juxtaposed against reflected fields.

G

The grade Good. The grades G-4 and G-6 on the Sheldon grading scale.

Gem

An adjective that the A.N.A. applies to coins which grade Mint State or Proof-67. Most dealers, however, apply the adjective to any coin which they grade MS/Proof-65.

Ghosting

When the design on one side of a coin appears faintly on the other side of a coin. This is usually caused by poor coin design or minting methods.

Gold

A bright yellow, heavy metal used in the production of the higher denominations of coinage.

Good

The grades G-4 and G-6 on the Sheldon grading scale.

Grade

The condition of a coin, this can be adjectival such as Uncirculated or Very Fine, or numerical on a 1 - 70 scale.

Graded coin

A coin which has been encapsulated, authenticated and graded by a third-party grading company.

Grader

A person who grades coins.

Hairlines

Thin, shallow scratches. These are most evident on proof or proof-like coins with reflective surfaces.

Hammer die

The non-stationary, upper die which strikes the coin whilst the anvil (lower) die is stationary.

Haze

A misty film that appears on coins. It may be natural or the result of improper storage or cleaning.

Heads

The obverse of a coin which features a head or bust.

High relief

Design elements of a coin rising high above the fields.

Hoard

A group of coins. Typically refers to an archaeological find of coins which were purposely buried en masse.

Hoard coin

A coin from an excavated hoard. To be attributed beyond a reasonable doubt, the coin should be recorded from a known hoard.

Hub

A minting tool which features a relief design which is imparted to coin production dies.

Impaired proof

A proof coin which has been mishandled or damaged.

Incomplete strike

A coin that is missing design detail because of a problem during the striking process. An incomplete strike may be due to insufficient striking pressure or improperly spaced dies.

Intrinsic value

The bullion or metal value of a coin.

Iridescence

A type of toning, the colours changing depending on the direction of light hitting a coin.

Lamination error

A form of planchet flaw caused by imperfections in the metal, whereby a thin strip of the metal separates itself from the coin.

Laureate

Refers to a head or bust which is wearing a laurel wreath.

Legend

The lettering around the circumference of obverse or reverse of a coin.

Lettered edge

A coin edge that displays an inscription as opposed to reeds.

Lint mark

These appear mostly on proof coins as a result of a piece of lint on the die or planchet during the striking process. This lint creates an incuse scratch-like mark on the coin.They are distinguishable from hairlines by the evenness of their depth and lack of raised ridges on their edges.

Loupe

A glass magnification tool.

Low relief

Design elements of a coin which do not rise high above the fields.

Luster

The brightness of a coin, this can be artificial but often refers to the "sheen" caused by the minting process. (American spelling of lustre)

Lustre

The brightness of a coin, this can be artificial but often refers the "sheen" caused by the minting process.

Lustrous

A coin which displays mint lustre.

Marks

Imperfections acquired after a coin is struck.

Master die

The main die produced from the master hub.

Master hub

The original hub created by the portrait lathe. Master dies are created from this hub.

Matte

A finish on coins which is not reflective.

Melt

Term for the intrinsic metal value of a coin.

Milled coin

A machine made coin as opposed to a coin manufactured by hand-hammering.

Mint

A facility which produces coins.

Mint bloom

A synonym of lustre, The brightness of a coin, this can be artificial but often refers to the "sheen" caused by the minting process.

Mint error

A mistake in the design of a coin, and also the coin on which the mistake occurs.

Mint mark

A design element of a coin, most often a letter, which refers to the facility or mint in which a coin was minted.

Mint state

A coin that has never been in circulation. Thus, the coin has no wear. A mint state coin may still be weakly struck, and therefore lack the detail of even a lower grade coin.

Mintage

The total number of coins produced.

Mintmark

A design element of a coin, most often a letter, which refers to the facility or mint in which a coin was minted.

Mis-struck

Term applied to "error coins" with striking irregularities.

Mishandled proof

A proof coin which has been mishandled or damaged.

MS

Mint state. A coin that has never been in circulation. Thus, the coin has no wear. A mint state coin may still be weakly struck, and therefore lack the detail of even a lower grade coin.

Mule

An incorrect pairing of obverse and reverse dies.

Multiple strike

When a coin is not ejected from the minting press resulting in it being struck multiple times. There is often a duplication of design elements.

Mutilated

A coin which has been damaged to a point it can not be graded.

NGC

Numismatic Guaranty Corporation, a third-party grading company of which Bath Spa Capital is a vetted and accredited dealer.

No grade

Term applied to a coin returned from a third-party grading service that was not encapsulated. This can be due to questionable authenticity, cleaning, damage, or other reasons.

Numerical grading

The Sheldon 1-70 scale employed by NGC, PCGS, and other third-party grading services.

Numismatics

A term referring to the subject of coins.

Numismatist

A person who collects, studies or deals in coins.

Obverse

The front of a coin which usually displays a monarch or head of state. The "heads" side of a coin.

Off centre

A coin struck on a blank that was not properly centred over the anvil or lower die.

Open collar

A device used to position a planchet over the lower die. It was employed specifically for striking early U.S. coins whose edges had already been stamped with reeding or lettering.

Original

Referring to any aspect of a coin that retains its original state without being cleaned, dipped or re-toned. 

Over dipped

A coin whose lustre has been dulled from too many baths in a dipping solution.

Overdate

A coin struck from a die with a date that has one year punched over a different year.

Patina

The surface of a coin which has been subject to a chemical reaction resulting in a change of colour.

Pattern

A coin produced as a proposed design which was not approved for circulation.

PCGS

Professional Coin Grading Service, a third-party grading company of which Bath Spa Capital is a vetted and and accredited dealer.

Pedigree

Refers to coin having been part of a famous or documented collection.

PF

Abbreviation of proof. A specially prepared coin, usually produced for presentation or collectors. Typically these coins have highly reflective fields with the devices frosted producing a cameo effect.

Piedfort

French for heavy foot, this refers to a coin which is twice as thick as its original counterpart. These coins are often proof or pattern.

PL

Abbreviation of proof-like

Plain edge

A coin whose edge is plain with no lettering, decoration or reeding.

Planchet

A coin before it is struck with any of its design elements. A synonym of blank. 

Plugged

A coin which has been pierced or holed for suspension and has since had the hole filled.

PO

The grade Poor. The grade PO-1 on the Sheldon grading scale.

Polished die

A die that has been basined to remove clash marks or other die injury. Dies used to strike Proof coins were polished to impart mirror-like surfaces.

Polyvinyl chloride

A somewhat active chemical found in some types of plastic coin flips. Polyvinyl Chloride will cause some coins to tone or turn green over time. In the long term it can lead to irreversible damage. 

Population

Refers to the amount of coins of a particular type which have been graded.

Population report

Refers to the amount of coins of a particular type which have been graded.

PR

Abbreviation of proof. A specially prepared coin, usually produced for presentation or collectors. Typically these coins have highly reflective fields with the devices frosted producing a cameo effect.

Proof

A specially prepared coin, usually produced for presentation or collectors. Typically these coins have highly reflective fields with the devices frosted producing a cameo effect.

Proof-like

A general circulating coin exhibiting characteristics of a proof coin. Usually produced from fresh or recently polished dies which strike a well prepared planchet.

Provenance

A coin's ownership history, this usually refers to coin having been part of a famous or documented collection.

Punch

A steel rod with a raised device on the end used to punch the element into a working die. This technique was used before hubbed dies were used as a standard.

PVC

Polyvinyl chloride, a chemical added to some plastic storage solutions. Products made from PVC can cause irreversible damage to a coin. 

PVC damage

A film, often green, left on a coin after storage in flips that contain PVC. During the early stage, this film may be clear and sticky.

Questionable authenticity

A term used for a coin whose authenticity can not be determined.

Questionable toning

A term used for a coin whose tone can not be determined as either natural or artificial. Such coins are not graded and encapsulated.

Rare

Refers to the amount of coins produced or amount readily available.

RB

An abbreviation for the designation red-brown on copper and bronze coins.

RD

An abbreviation for the designation red on copper and bronze coins.

Re-strike

A historic coin which has been reproduced at a later date.

Reeded edge

The grooves or lines found on the edge of a coin.

Regular strike

A coin struck for circulation and used for transactions.

Replica

A not genuine coin, usually refers to a coin not made to deceive.

Reproduction

A not genuine coin, usually refers to a coin not made to deceive.

Restrike

A historic coin which has been reproduced at a later date.

Reverse

The "tails" side of a coin. 

Reverse proof

A proof coin with frosted fields and reflective mirror-like devices.

Rim

The raised area around the circumference of the obverse and reverse of a coin.

Rim nick

Marks on a coin's rim. 

Rubbing

The barest trace of wear on the high points of a coin. Just a step more severe than "friction" on the scale of adjectives used to describe degrees of wear. Usually, a coin with rubbing has virtually full mint lustre intact. Also see: Friction.

Scarce

Generally not readily available, but enough available to not be rare.

Sheldon

William H. Sheldon, the pioneer of the 1-70 numerical grading scale.

Sheldon scale

The 1-70 numerical grading scale pioneered by William H. Sheldon.

Silver

A precious metal with a "white" appearance used in the manufacture of coins.

Slab

A third-party graded coin in its holder.

Slabbing

The practise of grading a coin and encapsulating it in a tamper evident slab for posterity.

Spark-erosion die

A die made by an electrolytic deposition method. Dies made in this way are typically quite rough and require polishing.

Spark-erosion strike

A coin made from spark-erosion dies.

Specimen

Refers to a coin whose finish falls somewhere between proof and circulation quality.

Spot

A discoloured area on a coin. A spot or spots can have a small or large effect on the grade of a coin depending many factors such as size, severity, and placement.

Striations

Term for the incuse polish lines on a die which result in raised lines on coins. While these are usually fine, parallel lines, they may also manifest themselves as swirling, or even criss-cross lines.

Strike

The sharpness of detail which the coin had when it was Mint State. A full strike is a coin that exhibits the full detail that would appear on the sharpest known examples of that type.

Strike on the day

A commemorative coin which is struck on the day of the anniversary. Abbreviated as SOTD. 

Strike through

A "strike-through" coin is made when another object comes between a blank and a die at the time of striking. That object's outline is pressed into the blank's surface.

Struck

Term describing a coin produced from a coining press.

Surfaces

The entire faces of a coin.

Tails

The reverse of a coin, on the opposite side of the "heads".

Toning

The chemical reaction between a coin and elements in the atmosphere resulting in a change of colour on some or all of a coins surfaces.

Tooled

Describes a coin which has had details either re-engraved, or enhanced, with an engraving tool or by other mechanical means.

Tooling mark

A term describing marks on coins from the touching up of dies, or evidence of devices being re-carved or surfaces smoothed.

Transfer die

A die created by using (sacrificing) a genuine coin as a hub.

Truncation

The cutting off point of the neck or shoulders on the obverse of a coin. Designers initials are often on or below this.

Ultra Cameo

Refers to the juxtaposition of reflective fields and frosty devices on proof coins.

Uncirculated

A coin which has not been in circulation.

Uni face coin

A coin with design elements on only one side.

Very Fine

Term for the grades VF-20, 25, 30, and 35.

Very Good

Term for the grades VG-8 and VG-10.

VF

The grade Very Fine. The grades VF-20, VF-25, VF-30, and VF-35 on the Sheldon grading scale.

VG

The grade Very Good, the grades VG-8 and VG-10 on the Sheldon grading scale.

Weak strike

Refers to a coin that does not show its intended detail because of low striking pressure or improperly aligned dies.

Wheel mark

A dense patch of lines caused by the rubber wheel of a counting machine. Caused when the wheel spacing was insufficient for the selected coin.

Whizzed

An artificial process whereby the surface of a coin is buffed to give it the appearance of having natural cartwheel lustre.

Working die

A die created from a working hub that is used to strike coins.

Working hub

A hub created from a master die that is used to create the working dies.

Worn Die

A die that has lost detail due to extended use. Dies were often used until they wore out, or were excessively cracked or broken. Coins struck from worn dies often appear to be weakly struck, however, they are not caused by low striking pressure.

XF

The grade Extremely Fine. The grades XF-40 and XF-45 on the Sheldon grading scale.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. To find out more, read our updated privacy policy and cookie policy.

Pre-loader